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Science, technology and design in Medieval Islam
اسلاید 1: www.tabaye.ir
اسلاید 2: Science, technology and design in Medieval Islam
اسلاید 3: What is Islam?A religion that began with the prophet Muhammad in the 7th centuryMuhammad believed he was a messenger sent by GodMuslims follow the teachings of the holy book, the Qur’anMuslims pray in the direction of Mecca, the centre for Islamic worshipIslam spread rapidly throughout the Middle East and beyond
اسلاید 4: The “Golden Age” of Medieval IslamIslam spread rapidly with the conquests of the first caliphs, or Muslim rulers750-1050 AD was a “golden age” for the Islamic worldArabia was at the crossroads of trade between Asia, Africa and EuropeTrade and conquest led to cultural exchange and the spread of knowledgeCities like Baghdad and Alexandria became great centres of scholarship
اسلاید 5: http://www.iris-bg.org/publications/geopolitical.htm
اسلاید 6: Science and Learning in Medieval IslamEarly Islamic teaching encouraged the pursuit of all knowledge that helped to improve people’s livesArabic became the international language of scholarshipMuslims translated important works from ancient Greece and EgyptHuge libraries were established in big cities like Baghdad, Cairo and Damascus
اسلاید 7: AstronomyAstronomy was important to Muslims for practical reasonsAstronomy contributed to navigationObservations of the sun and moon were used to determine prayer times and an accurate calendarLarge observatories were established and new instruments such as the astrolabe were developed
اسلاید 8: Islamic observatory The Whipple Collection, Cambridge
اسلاید 9: Chemistry and AlchemyChemistry was not seen as a separate science, but was an important part of other industries and craftsIslamic scientists developed new experimental techniques and methods such as distillationAlchemy was important as a science of the cosmos and the soul
اسلاید 10: Figures of some Alchemical Processes in Arabic Manuscripthttp://www.levity.com/alchemy/images/gab16.jpg
اسلاید 11: MathematicsIslamic mathematicians built on the work of Greek, Indian, Persian and Chinese mathematiciansIslamic mathematicians were interested in different number systemsDeveloped algebra and geometry which was important in architecture and other technologies
اسلاید 12: Islamic tile patterns used to decorate buildings
اسلاید 13: Medicine and surgeryIslamic medicine was based on the Greek model of the four elements and ‘humours’Disease was thought of as an imbalance of ‘humours’Pharmacy, combining herbal medicine and alchemy, was importantIslamic law forbade dissections
اسلاید 14: Illustration from a Persian anatomical workhttp://www.imagesonline.bl.uk/britishlibrary/
اسلاید 15: TechnologyArab lands were often dry and harsh environmentsImprovements in water technology were important for agricultureOther industries included manufacture of paper, machinery and scientific instruments
اسلاید 16: Water raising machine from Al-Jazari manuscripthttp://www.muslimheritage.com/ImageLibrary/
اسلاید 17: Why did the “Golden Age” come to an end?Religious divisions caused problems by the end of the 11th centuryConservative theologians imposed a return to orthodox beliefs and rejected ‘foreign sciences’The European crusades and attacks by the Mongols weakened the empire
اسلاید 18: Crusaders besieging Damascushttp://www.imagesonline.bl.uk/britishlibrary/
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