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Alternative Healing

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Alternative Healing

اسلاید 1: www.tabaye.ir

اسلاید 2: Alternative Healing

اسلاید 3: AgendaIntroducing CAMEvaluating Web SitesRecommended WebsitesReviewing the Evidence

اسلاید 4: Complementary and Alternative MedicineCA*NHIS 2007 Results>23,00 adults> 9000 childrenHispanic subpopulationadministered by NIH/CDCSelf reportInterview one child if they are presentCAM STATISTICS

اسلاید 5: 19th C Alternative MedicineMany medical sects emerged and challenged allopathic medicineThomsonianismEclectic movementHydropathyMost died out

اسلاید 6: Heroic MedicineBlood lettingPurgativesEmeticsSialogogues

اسلاید 7: HomeopathyLargest unorthodox sect in 19th cSamuel Christian Hahnemann German physicianTranslated classical medical textsRejected allopathic medicineBrought to US in 1825

اسلاید 8: HomeopathyA new system of medicineEmployed an experimental pharmacologySelf-experimentation or “provings”Initially popular in EuropeSpread to USA

اسلاید 9: OsteopathyAndrew Taylor StillSon of pioneer dr and Methodist ministerFrontier physicianKansasApprenticeshipChildren died of meningitis1874 conceives of osteopathyItinerant physician

اسلاید 10: Created alternative to allopathic medicineHuman body like a machine; Ought to function well if mechanically soundTreat body by improving natural functions

اسلاید 11: Osteopathic Medicine

اسلاید 12: Chiropractic Medicine1895Daniel David PalmerIowaCheir= handpraxis= practiceFirst patientDeaf janitor

اسلاید 13: Chiropractic MedicineDisease: joint-oriented nerve interferenceObstructs flow of “innate intelligence”Innate IntelligenceRegulates all vital functions as it flows through CNSConnects “man the spiritual” to “man the physical”Remove nerve interference caused by subluxations so that innate intelligence can maintain health and bodily equilibrium

اسلاید 14: What is CAM?Complementary and Alternative Medicine Complementary: together with aromatherapy to help with pain after surgeryAlternative: in place ofusing garlic to lower blood pressure

اسلاید 15: “Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a broad domain of healing resources encompassing all health systems, modalities, and practices and their accompanying theories and beliefs, other than those intrinsic to the dominant health system of a particular society or culture in a given historical period.” “All practices and ideas defined by their users as preventing or treating illness or promoting health and well-being are included.”“Boundaries within CAM and between the CAM domain and that of the dominant system are not always well defined.”(Cochrane)

اسلاید 16:

اسلاید 17: CAM becomes “legit”1990Wilk et al v. AMA1991 $2 million in funding to establish NIH Office of Alternative Medicine1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act

اسلاید 18: CAM becomes “legit”1995NIH Office of Dietary SupplementsFDA declassifies Acupuncture needles as experimental product1996NIH Consensus Conference on Acupuncture1997First large trial of CAM therapy, St. John’s Wort for depression

اسلاید 19: CAM becomes “legit”1998National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) established http://nccam.nih.gov/First full scale article in JAMA on herbal medicineOffice of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) established http://www.cancer.gov/cam/2001CAM on PubMed (NCCAM and NLM)2009 - $296 million in NIH CAM research

اسلاید 20: Complementary and Alternative Medicine

اسلاید 21: Impact of CAMCDC Report (2007)38% of adults used some form of CAM Children whose parent used CAM were 2x as likely to have used CAMCAM use more prevalent for: women, adults aged 30-69, higher levels of education, adults who were not poor, adults living in the West, and former smokersFull report: http://nccam.nih.gov/news/camstats/

اسلاید 22: Figure 17.2The Domains of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

اسلاید 23: Diseases and Conditions

اسلاید 24: Top CAM Therapies

اسلاید 25: Top 10 Supplements

اسلاید 26: Types?Biologically based practices supplementing a persons normal dietManipulative and body-based therapies focus on the bodys various systems and structures Mind-body interventions use the connection between a persons mind, body, and spirit to enhance total well beingEnergy therapies are meant to restore disturbances in the bodys natural energy

اسلاید 27: Types? (Common)AcupunctureAlexander TechniqueAllergy testingAromatherapy Art TherapyAutogenic TrainingAuricular AcupunctureAyuveda Bodywork BowenBiofeedbackChiropractic Chinese Herbal MedicineCounselling Craniosacral TherapyCrystal TherapyDowsing Flower TherapyHealing HerbalismHomeopathy

اسلاید 28: Types? (Common)Hydrotherapy HypnotherapyIndian Head MassageIridologyKinesiologyMusic TherapyNaturopathyNutritionOsteopathyPhysiotherapyRadionicsReflexologyReikiShiatsuTai ChiTENS therapyTraditional Chinese MedicineThought Field TherapyYoga Therapy

اسلاید 29: Types? (Rarer)Auricular AcupunctureAustralian Flower Essences TherapyBach Flower remediesBee Venom TherapyChelation Therapy Colonic Hydrotherapy Colour Therapy Dream Therapy Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprogramming Exercise Healing Health Clubs Health Screening Juice Therapy Light Therapy Light Touch Therapy Magnotherapy Marma TherapyMeta-AromatherapyMicrowave Resonanace TherapyNaturotherapyOxygen TherapyPanchakama TherapyPIP scansRaw Vegetable Juice TherapyRolfingSpiritual CounsellingStress ManagementSwimming TherapyTransdecendal MeditationTragerworkVegetable Juice Therapy

اسلاید 30: Categorization of Therapies Whole Medical SystemsBiologically Based PracticesEnergy Medicine Manipulative and Body-Based PracticesMind-Body Medicine National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

اسلاید 31: Whole Medical SystemsComplete systems of theory and practice that evolved independently Traditional systems of medicine that are practiced by individual cultures throughout the world Includes traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, homeopathy, naturopathyNational Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

اسلاید 32: Biologically Based PracticesIncludes: botanicals, animal-derived extracts, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids, proteins, whole diets, and functional foodsDietary supplements are a subset of biologically based practicesNational Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

اسلاید 33: Biologically Based - SupplementsWhat is a supplement?Regulated by FDA http://www.fda.govno requirements for FDA testingmanufacturers responsible for ensuring product safetylabel requirementsSafety alerts: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/ds-warn.html

اسلاید 34: Energy MedicineVeritable - energy that can be measuredIncludes sound, visible light, magnetismPutative – energy that has yet to be measuredhuman beings are infused with a subtle form of energy Includes qi (ki in Japanese); doshas; prana, homeopathic resonanceNational Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

اسلاید 35: Energy Medicine - AcupunctureFew complications Scientific evidence?post chemotherapy management of nauseapain reliefNIH Consensus Statement (1997)http://consensus.nih.gov/1997/1997Acupuncture107html.htm

اسلاید 36: Manipulative and Body-BasedStructures and systems of the body, including the bones and joints, the soft tissues, and the circulatory and lymphatic systemsIncludes chiropractic manipulation, massage therapy, reflexology, rolfing, Alexander technique, Feldenkrais method*National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

اسلاید 37: Mind-Body MedicineInteractions among the brain, mind, body, and behaviorThe ways in which emotional, mental, social, spiritual, and behavioral factors can directly affect healthIncludes relaxation, hypnosis, visual imagery, meditation, yoga, biofeedback, tai chi, group support, and spirituality *National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

اسلاید 38: Other CAM TherapiesAromatherapyColonic IrrigationTherapeutic TouchEDTA ChelationCuppingPrimordial Sound Meditation

اسلاید 39: Specific Types?AromatherapyUsed since Egyptian timesDistilled plant extracts 400 OilsVarying quality (RCT)Improve well-beingPeppermint – digestive effectsTea Tree Oil – antibacterialMassage, Baths, Inhalation

اسلاید 40: Specific Types?Bee Venom TherapyContain sulphur Stimulates cortisol release Applied to surfaceChronic inflammatory conditionsRA, MyositisApplied for 5days with 2-3day intervalNormally haemorrhagic

اسلاید 41: Avoiding Bad ScienceThe “One Product Does It All” claimhttp://www.emuoilcanada.com/Personal Testimonials http://www.getslimslippers.com/Quick Fixes/Cures http://www.improveyourhealthonline.com/ The “No Risk Money Back Guarantee” http://www.naturalhpvcure.com/ The “Natural” claim http://www.amtrueman.com/products.html

اسلاید 42: Evaluating Web SitesAccuracyAuthorityBiasCurrency Coverage

اسلاید 43: Evaluation Exercises

اسلاید 44: Recommended WebsitesAbout Herbs, Botanicals & Other Products

اسلاید 45: Examining the ResearchObservational StudiesClinical Trials/Studiescontrolledblind/double-blindrandomizedClinicalTrials.govGovernment and private clinical studies involving humanshttp://clinicaltrials.gov

اسلاید 46: Clinical Trials and CAMDrug companies vs. supplement companiesCustomization of treatment in CAMCAM does not necessarily want to be studied CAM has only recently become “legit” in the scientific community

اسلاید 47: Money to fund CAMNCCAM: $121.7 million (2009)OCCAM: $121.9 million (2009)Total all NIH: $296 millionWhat about funding for pharmaceuticals? $65.2 billion on R&D (2008) by drug companies$114.4 billion on R&D (2008) by NIH (this includes NCCAM and OCCAM)

اسلاید 48: Figure 17.3Assessing the Risks and Benefits of CAM Treatments

اسلاید 49: The other sideSome say CAM research should not be fundedhttp://www.nccamwatch.org/ (Stephen Barrett)Or some CAM research should not be fundedhttp://tinyurl.com/46ayhjj

اسلاید 50: Reviewing the EvidenceEvidence Based Medicine: “What evidence do we have to justify the treatment…”National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)CAM on PubMed http://pubmed.gov

اسلاید 51: CAM on PubMed Exercises

اسلاید 52: THANK YOU!

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